1. Seed capital
As the name suggests, this is the initial amount invested is Stages 1 and 2. This amount can be introduced from founder's own savings or by way of loans from friends and family (legal consultation required).
Since your money is invested into the business, it keeps you more involved in the business
Founders might not have enough resources
Numerous seed funds are being started every day. A possible solution may be to connect with them. They not only assist with initial capital but also provide necessary insights and mentorship.
2. Incubators/Accelerators/Entrepreneurship cells
These are entities run by Government organisations, seasoned entrepreneurs or leading educational institutes of the country. They usually invest in your idea, provide you a working space and help you connect with prospective investors. This sort of funding in very suitable for Stages 1 and 2.
Connecting with the right kind of accelerator paves the way for obtaining better investment in future
Some accelerators demand huge stake in the company
This is indeed a very good source of finance. However, a background check of the accelerators is advisable.
3. Bank financing
This is a very good source of funding for stages 3, 4 and 5. Bank loans are the most common source of financing. This is a flexible mode of securing funds without any pressure on equity.
Funds are obtained quickly mostly if your records are credible
Paperwork may be tedious
Special care should be taken while availing term loans. It is advisable to apply for short-term working capital loans as and when required.
4. Venture capital
These are generally investment firms who have the potential of pumping large amounts of money in exchange of for equity in the company. VCs are professional investors.
Rounds of VC financing
There can be multiple rounds of VC funding. Each round is typically denoted by a letter of the alphabet (Series A, B, C).
Interesting thing about VC financing is that usually it is received in exchange of convertible preference shares or cumulative convertible preference shares (CCPS). Hereby, the investors are secured about their privileges and enjoy preferential rights till they gain equity ownership.
The different VC rounds reflect different valuations. Usually a Series B funding will see a higher valuation than that of Series A. There can also be a 'Down Round', wherein the valuation of the current round will be lower than the previous series. However, this is not a very common scenario.
Connection with a VC in turn opens the window for multiple other connections
They generally do not look for Stages 1 and 2 start-ups
VC funding is your big ticket to enter into the big corporate arena. However, you must be very careful while striking the deal with them.
5. Mezzanine financing & bridge loans
Once a company receives VC funding, the start-up feel is washed away. The next important stage that would be in the horizon is initial public offering (IPO). The need of the company grows and the funding sources for Stages 1, 2, 3 and 4 can no longer suffice the requirement. Usually the following options are now considered:
Till the time the company carries out either of this, the company may opt for mezzanine financing or 'bridge' financing. As the name suggests, these are short term financial assistance which are often used 6 to 12 months before an IPO.
These are some of the most common sources of funding for a start-up. As you can see now, every stage in the life cycle of a start-up is unique. So are the choices.